اصول و روش ترجمه(Meaning based translation)
form and meaning
Translation, by dictionary, consists of changing from one state or form to another, to turn into one’s or another’s language. Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of language, we are referring to the actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs.These forms are referred to as the surface structure of a language. The purpose of this text is to show that translation consists of translating the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of a second language by way of semantic structure It is the meaning which is being transferred and must be held constant. Translation consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure communication situation, and cultural context of source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language.The sentence “I feel sleepy” is translated “kajang pujawai” [My sleep lives] in Aguaruna and “teng” sueno [I have sleep] in Spanish. The three languages use different grammatical forms.The sentence “I feel sleepy” is translated “kajang pujawai” [My sleep lives] in Aguaruna and “teng” sueno [I have sleep] in Spanish. The three languages use different grammatical forms. a) uses the normal language forms of the receptor language, b) communicates, as much as possible to the receptor language speakers the same meaning that was understood by the speakers of the original source text means that the translation is presented in such a way that it will evoke the same response as the source text attempted to evoke.
Characteristics of language which affect translation:
First, meaning components are packaged in to lexical items, but they are packaged differently in one language than in another. In most language there is a meaning component of plurality, for example the English-S. This often occurs in the grammar as a suffix on the nouns or verbs. Second, it is characteristic of language that the same meaning component will occur in several surface structure lexical items. In English, the word sleep occurs. However, the word lamb, ram, and ewe also include the meaning sleep. Third, it is further characteristic of languages that one form will be used to represent several alternative meanings.For example there are 54 meanings in English for “run”. This principle is not limited to lexical items since the same grammatical pattern may express several quite different meanings.For example, the English possessive phrase “my house’ may mean “the house I own”, the house I rent”, “the house I live in”, “the house I built”.A question form may be used for a non question. For example the question “Mary, why don’t you wash the dishes?” may in some context be asking for in formation.
But it is often used with the meaning of command or suggestion. Also signle meaning may be expressed in a variety of forms. For example the meaning “the cat is black”, may be expressed by the following: “the cat is black”, “the black cat”, “the cat which is black”, depending on how that meaning relates to other meanings. Only when a form is being used in its primary meaning is there a one-to-one correlation between form and meaning. The other meanings are secondary or figurative meanings.This characteristic of skewing that is the diversity or the lack of one-to-one correlation between form and meaning is the basic reason that translation is a complicated task.If there were no skewing literal word-for-word and grammatical structure-for-grammatical structure translation would be possible. But each language has its own distinctive forms to represent meaning . A word-for-word translation which follows closely the form of the source language is called literal translation. The goal of a translator should be to produce a receptor language. text which is idiomatic; that is one which has the same meaning as the source language but is expressed in the natural form of the receptor language.